Published in Blood Weekly, February 26th, 2004
"To evaluate the growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) in the in vivo osteogenic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)," researchers in Japan "subcutaneously implanted five different kinds of hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic implants: HA alone, GDF-5/HA composites (GDF/HA), MSCs/HA composites, the MSCs/HA composites supplemented with GDF-5 (GDF/MSCs/HA), and recombinant bone morphogenetic protem-2 (BMP/MSCS/HA)."
"Neither the HA alone nor the GDF/HA composites exhibited any bone formation at any time after...
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