Published in Obesity and Diabetes Week, July 31st, 2006
Study 1: Diabetic models reflect the effect of insulin on vessel formation in obesity.
According to scientists writing in the journal Diabetologia, "We previously demonstrated that insulin stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) synthesis and secretion via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from humans and from insulin-sensitive lean Zucker fa/+ rats. We also showed that this effect is attenuated in VSMC from insulin-resistant obese Zucker fa/fa rats."
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