Published in Vaccine Weekly, May 25th, 2005
"We studied the effect of TNF-alpha stimulation on a cholangiocarcinoma cell line, CCKS1. CCKS1 expressed only one type TNF receptor, TNFR2. Treatment of CCKS1 with TNF-a substantially activated NF kappa B, MAPK, and Akt signaling, which in turn activated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) secretion and in vitro invasiveness of CCKS1," scientists writing in the journal Cancer Letters report.
"Pretreatment of cells with anti-TNFR2 neutralizing antibody inhibited the TNF-alpha-dependent signaling and MMP-9 secretion and subsequently...
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