Published in Women's Health Weekly, August 5th, 2004
"Estrogen is involved in breast tumorigenesis, but the precise mechanisms for its oncogenic and angiogenic actions are poorly understood. Angiogenesis is regulated, in part, by these critical components: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its two receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2). VEGFR-2 is a positive angiogenic signal transducer, whereas VEGFR-1, especially its soluble form (soluble VEGFR-1), is a negative regulator of VEGF availability," scientists in the United States report.
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